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Well that worked. Trying again, this time not cut and pasting.
1) You do need a license. There are three different license levels, Technician, General and Amateur Extra. With each successive license, you get access to more of the frequency spectrum. With a Technician license you are limited to higher frequency, line of sight bands which have limited propagation. With a general license you have access to all of the frequency bands. The Amateur Extra license gives you additional frequencies on the bands. The ARRL band chart better illustrates this. It shows all of the frequency bands and what each license class has access to. Do a web search for ARRL band chart.
To obtain a license, you first need to learn the material. There are online study guides, flash cards and sample tests. Search the interweb to find one you like. The ARRL web site also has licensing information.
Once you learn the material, you will need to take the test. Many local amateur radio clubs provide testing for a small fee. Search the web for an amateur radio club in your area. The club website will show if and when they provide testing. My local club does testing about once a month.